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How to change the world, social entrepreneurs and the power of new ideas David Bornstein

How to change the world, social entrepreneurs and the power of new ideas   David Bornstein

Essay by Anna Mkamburi student at school of education (www.aiu.edu)

 

Social entrepreneurship is a process by which citizens build or transform institutions to advance solutions to social problems such as poverty, illness, illiteracy, environmental degradation, human rights abuses, and corruption in order to make a better life for many. It is a combination of philanthropy, social activism and capitalism made up of active citizenry in the private sector.

Social entrepreneurs learn by working with communities to find unique, local solutions to local problems. As individual we can effect positive change with global reach by engaging in local projects on a human scale if young people participate in active citizenry like the Toronto based World Youth Centre which according to Bornstein is an incubator for youth driven social change project.

Non- Government Organisations like Ashoka have helped identified social entrepreneurs who can impact positive change in the world. College Summit was founded by divinity student J.B Schramm to help low income earners high school graduate in the United States of America and Canada enrol in colleges to acquire knowledge and build their careers by becoming more qualified academically. This will help them get good employment opportunities and reduce unemployment, high crime rates as a result of employment, low cases of drug abuse and more government taxes through taxing the working class hence improving the Gross National and Domestic products.

Poland Barka was founded by Barbara and Tomasz which brings together former prison inmates, recovering alcoholics and homeless people to live and work together ,sharing responsibility and co-managing small businesses.’Barka  has created out of the …..Ashes of communism, a system of mutual support that allows people to free themselves from a kind of self-imposed captivity’.Burka is built on culture and empathy, humour, flexible thinking and good natured acceptance of human sickness. The reason why Barka is engaging to people with social problems in the society is to help them become more responsible of their lives, realise their dreams and make them come true by giving them hope and encouragement. It will also reduce cases of human rights abuses because most alcoholics end up committing crimes which they never intended to commit, some of them are also abused by family members and the society. When homeless people have a place to live disease like asthma during the cold season or dry season when they are exposed to dust and during the rainy season they have shelter. Inmates are help in terms of psychology where some of them were traumatised in that one out of five inmates are innocent people; Barka tries to help them to resume their normal lives by advising and cancelling them.

Mary Gordon helps children acquire skills of empathy and emotional empathy. She is the founder of Roots of Empathy. Children learn about caring and safety, good byes and good wishes. They learn how to recognise other people’s feelings by helping them manage their own. According to the University of Columbia, these experiences helps improve students understanding  about emotions  and social situations and leads to more pre-social behaviour and less aggression including  less bulling. Countries like Japan and Australia have also adopted the system and other countries around the world are in the process of adopting it too. Empathy is the instinct that compels us to go beyond our impulses for survival and the power that drives us to expand boundaries of our caring nature to include our communities and the world around. In economic hardships, political instabilities and rapid technological advances including the advents of social media like CNN and BBC enables human beings to endure the hardships we face in the world today. According to Jeremy Rifkins, ’it lies at the very core of human existence’. Jacqueline a financial fund expertise with her gift of empathy has invested in Kenya, Karachi and Dubai to help improve the lives of poor people by providing them with employment opportunities so that they can eradicate poverty, live normal lives and send their children to school. Bornstein acknowledges that innovation nurtured by an entrepreneurial spirit and empathy nurtured by a strong civil society will be solutions for our problems and not political, media and financial institutions but making a personal commitment and taking a positive action.

Grameen bank   village bank in 1990s by Yunus.It has improved lives of many Bangladeshi women by giving them loans with no collateral security thus make the loans easily accessible to the poor women. These loans help them move from oppressive poverty to less oppressive poverty unlike before where they suffered under the hands on rogue money lenders who charged high interest rates repayable within a short period of time. Many lost everything plunging them into deep poverty because they lost their properties to money lenders. Now they can enjoy three meals per day this improves their health, they work harder to achieve good results, diseases are limited hence their life expectancy also increases. They keep vegetable garden for nutritional purposes and are also able to send their children to school hence reducing illiteracy rates, minimising child labour and child abuses like companies exploiting children. Men through women who acquire loans from Grameen bank have improved their lives in that they are able to by rickshaws to further their businesses and contribute towards raising a family as well as the society. Long before Grameen bank some men worked for twenty years without owning their own rickshaws this lowered their morale to work, they were indirectly enslaved to rickshaw owners who allowed them to rent their rickshaws at a very high price and made them to work their lives without owning anything. Men in Bangladesh have now a sense of ownership and this gives them mental freedom and ownership freedom. Together with their wives they can send their children to school. The idea of Grameen Bank has spread all over the world in the form of micro finance like the case of Kenya where Faulu micro finance institution has helped improved many lives of Kenyans. Women small micro finance have liberated them from exploitation by men who were mostly the bread winners, single parents like my mother are able to educate their children like my case my primary  and secondary school education was raised through micro finance institutions run by women. Many women have acquired pieces of land because majority were discriminated against men who are given land by parents excluding women. This has helped the empowerment of women who now have a voice in the society. The ability to own property by paying in instalment has played a major role in social and economic change in the society. It has played a bigger part of our freedom more especially women and the ability to move beyond our sexual’disadvantage’.Grameen bank has played a major role towards emancipation of women in Bangladeshi whereby houses acquired through loan offered by Grameen must be registered under women’s name.

Micro finance institutions have helped Tsunami survivors lead their normal lives by giving them loans instead of being dependants of the government and foreign aids which have strings attached to them. Women in Sri Lanka who are fish vendors through loans from micro finance institutions are able to rent cars for over six months to do their business hence improving their livelihoods and send their children to school instead of rice fields which have a reputation of employing one of the highest numbers of child labourers in the world. Literacy rates have thereby declined as well as life expectancy in that poverty reduces life span of a human being because he will be prone to diseases which have costly medication coupled with poor nutrition.

In Mexico, a cement factory is using the principle of instalment to help slum dwellers build houses of their own. Fabio Rossa a Brazilian has helped improved the lives of poor villagers by renting them solar panels with a monthly fee of less than what they pay for kerosene, candles and batteries. This also helps reduce pressure to non-renewable resources like kerosene and batteries. It also helps ease the problem of environmental degradation like expired batteries which contain  lead .Rossa is also helping solve the problem of environmental degradation by using solar energy which has no effects towards the environment and its free of charge unlike other sources of energy like kerosene which comes from oil.

Social entrepreneurs are born however some can be taught. Social entrepreneurs are determined people like the case of Drayton he took his time to determine potential social entrepreneurs who could help him achieve his goal of helping people eradicate poverty by providing employment opportunities.

Mohammed Yunus spent thirty years before Grameen bank became successful by trial and error until he got a breakthrough. According to David, social entrepreneurs are motivated people; they plan, search and exploit more opportunities. They seek long term gains over short time profits like Drayton and Muhamed Yunus.Vinoba Bhave spent a decade walking across India at 10 miles a day, persuading villagers to donate farmland to the India’s poor of the poorest. His persistence lead to the nation of seven million acres .He achieved his goal without backing.

Social entrepreneurs are self-driven and energetic people. A case in point is Jeroo Bilimoria an Indian social worker who created telephone hotline to help street children in Bombay. The hotline is operated by street children themselves and the idea has spread to U.K, Philippines, Zimbabwe and Pakistan. Ravi Agarwal found a simple solution to disposing needles because of the corrupt nature of the Indians .His method was to cut off the tip off the needles, dipping them in hypochlorite solution and deep burry them. The government was adamant about the  this health and environmental issue because of his safe driven nature he eradicate the problem which required less money involved to solve it.Ravi also demonstrated  skills not necessarily technological  to be a social entrepreneur. David states that,’…innovation in areas of management, motivation and communication’.

Some social entrepreneurship learn through exposure of a problem. Mohamed Yunus  was exposed to famine in Bangladeshi which killed thousands of Indians .This drove him to form Grameen bank.J.B Schramm of College Summit worked  at a youth camp in Southern California he was able to come face to face with the problems youth were facing like low income as a result of low education qualifications. Fabio Rosso of Brazil was also exposed to the problems of high costs of energy in Brazil this made him find a solution by lending villagers solar panels to better their lives.

Self-intelligence is one of the qualities that social entrepreneurs possess. It can also built into the system like Mohammed Yunus of Grameen bank where employees are set to make their way into muddy paths and across bamboo bridges to collect instalments. Every new recruit according to Yunus after a week she is dispatched to a village to write a detailed case study about a poor woman. She is expected to spend a few days interviewing the woman on her home who is busy doing her daily chores. This helps the employee cultivate the spirit of patience and the long and tough journey helps him to cultivate endurance. It also help the staff see beyond their prejudice but also an excellent way to screen out staff members who have little enthusiasm for serving the poor. Another way is for the bank screen out potential problem staff by not hiring people who have worked previously in banks because it is too difficult to get to change their ideas about banking. This is a creative management approach according to the author. No bureaucracy has the patience to solve all these problems and attend to all details. Thus the Grameen bank has amassed a lot of ideas and experience .Therefore, entrepreneurs have drawn rich opportunities from practical insights and put them into broader use thus the world today needs solutions to real problems and not imaginable problems.Erzsebet the Hungary mother of a disabled child first hired people with experience and who worked in institutions for the disabled people. She found out majority of them had a negative attitude towards the poor and were resistant to change. She began watching them and identifying those who enjoyed helping them to live more in dependable  and saw that they shared many qualities like patience, empathy and a sense of humour. She now a day hires bakers, shop clerks and homemakers and watch them to see if they are right for the job. New York had a scandal where disabled people were being abused and neglected because the administration never screened their caregivers. Another case in point is that Citizen Television Network in Kenya had swindled over 100 million Kenyan shillings set aside to help the disabled people; reason is that those in the offices are people with no disabilities and some never got any training. Shocking news last week was that they take images of disabled people sometimes without their consent send them to Europe and America to ask for funds in the name of helping them and then the money disappears few people’s pockets. Kenyans protested to date nothing has been done, no arrests no investigations even after citizen investigators provided all the evidences like bank accounts opened in disguise of the disabled, money withdrawn, the culprits,letters.proposals and photographs sent to donors abroad, the dust has calmed down nothing has been done.

They, social entrepreneurs do not seek approval from others; they cannot tolerate stagnation that sets in their bodies and minds and are not fully engaged meaningful work. They respond to their own feelings, honestly and aggressively and they pay attention to their gleams of light.Ralph Waldo Emerson acknowledges, ’a man should learn to dictate and watch that gleam of light which flashes across his mind from within, more than the lustre of the firmament of bands and sages…’Like Paul and Rusesabagina of Hotel Rwanda who risked their lives to save over one thousand and two hundred people. We can learn from social entrepreneurs that we look at patterns in our lives that reveal our deepest interests and strengths. What we care most and what we do best. Many people do what they do not want to do because of some forces in our societies that compel us to do what we do not care about rather than where our strengths and interests lay. Like growing up as a child we are taught to avoid failure at all costs we learn through mistakes than through the success we achieve.Charecters and world leaders are shaped by their setbacks not by their accomplishments. Therefore, we should value fail like an African saying …when you fall down don’t lie down and grieve but pick yourself up, wipe the dust and continue going. Thomas Edison acknowledges…’I make many mistakes than anyone I know. And eventually I patent them. ’Indeed breakthrough depends on failure by investigating why you failed and applying that to future projects. According to Google source...’fail fast and early before investing more than necessary or damaging your brand’. Erik Weihnenmayor a blind man who scaled Everest on his own was asked how he made it, his answer was...’Practise overcoming fear and adversity by overcoming fear and adversity’.

David Bornstein acknowledges that social entrepreneurs work across boundaries and the willingness to break free of established boundaries like Veronica Khosa a south African woman who established a nursing school and trained people on home based care to people suffering from AIDs first by teaching people about AIDs, it’s cause and learn to accept their condition so that they can be able to take care of themselves. This helped reduce AIDs stigmazation and the rate of which it was spreading.

As the I defined earlier social entrepreneurship helps find solution to problems like illness, illiteracy, environmental destruction, human rights abuse and corruption. Illiteracy is the ignorance of the fundamentals of a particular art or area or knowledge or the inability to read and write.

According to UNESCO, 2004, eight hundred million in the world are illiterate. This means that one out of six people is illiterate .65% of the world population is illiterate. It is a problem affecting the whole world and not developing countries alone. The number is growing at an alarming rate in the illiterate society. The Interim Report from the World Literacy Foundation;January,2012 states that 67million children do not have access to primary education and that illiteracy costs the world economy 2% GDP.

There are so many causes of illiteracy which include poverty which leads to subsequent lack of access to reading and writing. Poor people will consider food as a first priority than education that’s why many poor students drop out of school to help their families look for food, some have never stepped to school because of poverty. A case in point is the overwhelming number of beggars and children who have attained an age to enrol in schools but are in the streets of Niamey and Addis Ababa.

Geographical location, there are places in Pakistan so remote that there are no schools since the last century to date and parents do not find an alternative solution to this problem. Countries in the Sahara desert have high illiteracy rates because of the weather and climatic conditions where temperatures go up as high as over 50 degrees celcius.This is evidenced by high number of street children not going to school. Temperature conditions hinder learning in the Sahara together with desert sand storms.

Religion has played a big contribution to the high illiteracy rates. Islamic religion forbids girls towards acquiring education like the case of Pakistan and Iraq where Islamists militia kill teachers beat and strip girls attending schools and several times have poison water in schools where girls are learning. According to their religion as they say girls are supposed to be at homes to be taught house chores and how to take care of their families. In Niamey, Niger, many boys and girls do not attend school but end up in streets begging for food and money which in turn they take to the Sheikhs so that they may be taught the Quran.

Cultural practices like a girl should be married off in her early adolescent stage so as to bring honour and respect to the family as well as avoid early pregnancies. This is typical of the Mijikenda community of the Coast of Kenya, Zarma of Niger and Maasai community of Kenya and Tanzania hence contributing towards illiteracy. Once teenage boys of Maasai, Kalenjin and the Coastal communities of Kenya are circumcised are supposed to marry as young as fourteen years of age. When a girls fell pregnant outside wedlock while school whoever young she is she is married off or she drops out of school to take care of the young one and she is considered a shame to the family and she and the child is discriminated against. My mother went through this when at the age of sixteen she fell pregnant while in form two gave birth to me and dropped out to take care of me.She wanted to go back but my grandparents refused to take her back to school because of the shame she had brought them.

Busy parents who have no time to help their children with their homework or monitor their children progress also contribute to school dropouts hence the children become functionally illiterate. These kids normally have no one to talk to about their problems they become frustrated and eventually drop out of school.

Illiterate parents also contribute whereby illiterate parents cannot help kids do their homework, some do not know the importance of education like my grandparents when my mother fell pregnant and wanted to go back to school they refused because they were illiterate and did not know the importance of education.

Terrorists’ activities like Somalia, Iraq and Pakistan have contributed to high illiteracy rates because learning activity stops in the wake of wars and abductions. People mind about their safety than anything else. This explains why there are low literacy rates in Pakistan and Iraq.

Sometimes there can be students to teach but teachers are few or are not qualified enough or there are no learning materials like books or no classrooms or few classrooms. Rwanda is an example which falls short of teachers and have a plan of hiring teachers from Uganda and Kenya.

Illiteracy does not encourage positive social change, personal growth or preservation and development of language and culture. Illiterate people are bound to be exploited mainly by banks and house owners because they do not understand the laws to protect them and bank owners and house owners take the advantage that they are illiterate and exploit them by changing high mortgage rates and illegal evictions.

In case of emergencies like when they get lost they cannot read signs or understand rules more especially in the streets they find themselves rubbing shoulders with law.

In case of emergencies like an accident or other medical complications maybe they do not know the hospitals reading directions become difficult and the casualty may end up losing his or her life.

Illiteracy has costed many governments a lot of money in the war against poverty money which could have been used to develop other sectors like health and security Unemployment benefits. Employers have also fallen victims of illiteracy where common mistakes like accounting have costed companies’ money.

Illiteracy on the other hand has led to poverty whereby illiterate people have lost wealth creation opportunities for individuals and business. No employer is ready to hire an illiterate person. This in turn has led to many people resort to crime as a way of getting their daily bread, drug abuse because of stress and depression and others opt for suicide.

Illiteracy can be solved by first educating the parents, if parents are educated, they will pass education to the young ones. Children learn from their parents.

Making sure that girl child education is prioritised like the case of Uganda; girls who sat for A- level have an extra one point so as to encourage many girls pursue education. In Kenya there is a rule that any girl who got pregnant while in school must return to school after delivery and this is followed up by school head teachers and the head of the location and all children who have attained an age of going to school must enrol.

Illiteracy can be solved by introducing adult literacy programs, like the case of once the thriving’Gumbaru’dealing with education for adult

Compulsory free and secondary education should be introduced in schools, like the case of free primary education in Uganda and Kenya in public schools. They should also introduce free secondary education.

If literacy training programs are introduced then there would be direct cost savings hence kicking out poverty.

Access to further training and better employment opportunities, high incomes increase in tax revenue for the government and improved health care services.

Illness is one of the social problems facing the world today. When a nation is ill there will be no developments because money which could have been used for other development projects would be used for medicinal purposes.

Social entrepreneurs like Veronica Khosa founder of an organisation where she trains people about AIDs, the cause of AIDs and training home based care for patients infected with AIDs. This reduced stigmasation of AIDs patients as well as helping those not affected on ways to protect them. Vera Cardero initiated transformation in how children are cared for after they leave hospital. David writes that it is a job to ensure that vulnerable children are treated at Hospital Da Lagoa truly benefits from the medical care they receive and stay healthy outside hospital. This is because many children leave in poor conditions and is exposed to poor diet hence after leaving school they are re-hospitalised. This because becomes a cycle parents remain poor because money they could have invested is used to cater for medical service of the child hence poverty creeps in.Through Ashoka,the number of children at  risk after being discharged  dropped from 42% to 10% and the average family income increased by 58%.Bill Gates stepped down from Microsoft to run his foundation. Through research trips he came face to face with people suffering and dying. He saw that he could help develop AIDs or malaria vaccines or expanding health care systems.

Human rights abuses is also a core problem to social economic development, they include children rights abuse whereby some of the children supposed to be in schools are working as child labour like in rubber plantations in Liberia, tea plantations in Kenya, flower green houses in Kenya, rice fields in Sri Lanka and Vietnam  and textile industries un India. They are denied a right to be educated and some are physically and psychologically abused. Rights of physically and mentally challenged people are also one of the forms of human rights abuse. A case study is in India where Javed Abidi had to raise awareness on disability issues, empowering them through appropriate legislation, equipping disabled people with education and access to all public places because they were denied all these rights. Forcefully circumcision of girls in the Muslim world and parts of Africa like West Africa, North Africa and East Africa, Kenya being notorious is abuse of girl-child rights physically and psychologically. Physically she may develop complications which sometimes result to death due to over bleeding; three out of ten circumcised girls bleed to death. Also giving birth becomes a problem because of the scar she got as a result of circumcision; this is one of the factors contributing to death of African and Middle East dying during labour. The issue of circumcised women has broken many marriages apart because most circumcised women do not enjoy sex.One woman from the Abagusii community told a congregation when they were discussing the issue of circumcision that her husband used to beat her claiming that she was denying her rights because she used to resist because of the pain she used to feel during intercourse, he used to beat her eventually she walked out of their marriage. Many women and children are being raped in war torn countries like Mali, Syria and Eastern Congo. Many women have lost their lives form domestic abuses. One out of ten women are being killed daily by their husbands some of them physically and mentally abused like the case of an American woman whose eyes were gouged out by her boyfriend. David Bornstein acknowledges that in New York City disabled people were being neglected and abused because of their condition. In East Africa more than fifty people with albinism condition were killed for ritual purposes that their skin and private parts were used by witchdoctors to make people rich and bring good fortune. A certain woman of Abagusii community killed her new born baby because she was an albino and that is considered a curse of bad lack to the society, whoever gives birth to a child with albinism becomes a laughing stock in the society. Male children are no exception they are being sodomised,one out of ten male kids have been subjected to sodomy,women from Nyeri in Kenya recently were making headlines for physically abusing their husbands’ Ugandan rights activist defending the rights of gays, bisexual and lesbians was murdered last year, many gays fled to Kenya for fear of their lives in Kenya because they were physically attacked and emotionally traumaticed,A Turkish young man was killed by his father in the name of honour killing because he was gay. His life is explained in the film Zenne Dancer. Women in many Muslim and traditional African society are not given the right to acquire education because they are seen as lesser beings whose job is to give birth ,be in the kitchen and take care of the family explaining why many girls eight out of ten girls in the Muslim world are married off before  their teen age. Traditional African society view girls as a source of wealth by selling them off in the name of bride price mostly inflated like the Maasai community of Kenya and Tanzania, the Karamojong of Uganda demand hundreds of cattle, goats and sheep for a young virgin girl in the name of bride price, girls in these communities are forced to marry someone they do not know simply because he is wealthy. Indian communities are not left behind, fathers choose husbands for their girls mostly involving men whom they do not know and they have never meet with them since birth. Every human being has the right to love and marry someone who she or he loves but this right is violated also among the Arab community. My friend Amina an Arab young woman confessed to me that her parents have been given money, a house as a bride price behind her back. After completing  primary school at the age of fourteen she wanted to continue with education but was told she was being groomed for marriage, she tried to resist and opted to run away but security was so tight, she was confined to a big room with high walls making escape something beyond impossibility and the gate was guarded by a mean uneducated young man of Arab origin, the days finally were over she was forcefully married she confessed to me she doesn’t love the man and she was going to do everything so that she may get divorced.

The causes of human rights abuses are among them culture, traditional African society believe that albinos are  bad omen and a curse so they are killed immediately they are born.Religeous fanatics like he Muslims society stone gays and lesbians to death according to what the Quran prescribed, it also involves the cutting of limbs to those caught stealing.

Traditional beliefs that albinos’skin and private parts are a source of wealth and fortune has led to the killing of more than fifty albinos in East Africa notably Tanzania, where the skin and private parts of an albino are taken to a witchdoctor where rituals are perform instead of advising people to work hard to have the wealth they so desire but encourage laziness and kill human beings for quick wealth. In African societies girls are married off because they are viewed as a children manufacturing machines and they place is in the kitchen and not school. Also the circumcision of girls in that women are supposed to be below men according to some traditional cultures like the maasai and abagusii, uncircumcised girls are viewed as equal to men which is an acceptable, any uncircumcised girl is discriminated against and does not participate in anything including mingling with fellow girls or any performing any chores, she is left in her own world.

Poverty is another cause why have girls are sold to wealthy men without their consent, if the parents of the girl in question were rich they could have taken their daughter to school to acquire an education which will make have a better useful person in the society. Men who marry these girls treat them as objects because they bought them; they have the mentality that they own them and can do anything without any questions being raised. Many girls end up suffering under these heartless men.

If many parents especially women were literate and understand the strict laws put up to protect women and children then the rate of women and girls abuse will be low or a history in the society. Because of illiteracy the chances for being employed are slim hence they are forced to depend on men who take advantage of their situation.

The society is stuck to old religious and cultural practices. Many including the learned are still living in the past where the issues of women emancipation, gay, albinism, lesbianism was not talked about and the rights of these people were infringed, Society is always advocating for change but we haven’t changed.

Human rights abused can be minimised or stopped by passing laws and organisations protecting women and children like FIDA in Kenya, Free Children a non-profit organisation founded by Craig Kielburger which operates in Sri Lanka,India,Ecuador,Sierra Leone and China

The government and the society should unite and create a telephone line which runs 24/7 to help women and the vulnerable members of the society like Jeroo Billimorria who created telephone hotline to help street children in Bombay. The practise has been adopted in U.K, Philippines, Zimbabwe and Pakistan. Children should be educated and be made aware of their rights in schools, churches, mosques and by the media through children forums hosted by children themselves like Citizen Television channel has a kids ’program every Saturday hosted by children.

Governments should pass laws to protect children and women who are the most vulnerable people in the society more especially during political turmoil. Laws to protect women and the girl-child against female genital mutilation like the formation of TOSTAN helps women overcome female genital mutilation in West Africa and training women and men alike and creating opportunities. It is based in Senegal.

Poverty can be eradicated by the creation of micro finance like Kashf a micro finance in Pakistan whose aim is to lift women out of poverty, Kenya has Faulu a micro finance institution which helps both men and women out of poverty ,fund their businesses and pay school fees for their children. Giving youths loans so us to start projects which help them economically like Kenya through CDF(Constituency Develop Fund0helps poor students pay their school fees, fund youth projects so that the youth are empowered economically. That is why CAMFED a non-profit organisation took the responsibility of sponsoring girls education in Africa by paying fees, help them with menstruation challenges and encourage girls to give back to the community by helping other girls when they have completed their education and are successful. African governments should follow these examples or make sanitary towels available to the poor girls too by making special supplies in schools at the cheapest price possible.

If the government of Kenya can provide free condoms then they should also provide pads to help poor girls attend schools during menstruation. The average menstruation days are three meaning that every three days in a month a poor girl misses classes multiplied by nine school going months that is twenty seven days school going days are missed yet this girl is supposed to compete academically with a boy who has been attending classes for nine months

One serious problem facing the planet earth is environmental degradation through, air pollution like gases being emitted into the atmosphere from aircrafts, gases from nuclear plants like Japan,Iran and North Korea, oil refineries like Changamwe oil refinery in Kenya, which is corroding the Ozone layer giving birth to global warming, rising of sea levels, melting  of ice and glaciers which have in turn led to flooding in China and Russia, the case of Tsunami where thousands of lives were claimed and destruction of properties worth billions of shillings. Whenever there is a disaster the government and non-profit organisations lose a great deal of many to help victims psychologically, financially and healthwise.Global warming has led to drought and famine sub-Sahara Africa including the Horn of Africa worst affected. Land pollution through mining of minerals like the ghost town Kilembe in Uganda, Central African Republic lives land exposed to wind and water erosion. Exposed mines have claimed the lives of men and animals. Land pollution in Lagos city where the city is full of tonnes of dumped garbage and Nairobi’s Dandora estate, Mombasa Kibarani dumping site, Niamey in Niger is no exception, this poses a health risk like emission of dangerous gases when inhaled, spread of disease like cholera and dysentery during the raining season, attraction of rats which spread diseases like hantavirus, and bubonic plague which claim human lives. Water pollution  through dumping of wastes in rivers like timber waters in river Ivindo has claimed marine lives, human beings are drinking water full of lead metals which may cause cancer.Rivers,Umzimkulu,Umfolosi  have also suffered from human effluent and industrial wastes from sugar plantations and factories in Natal province in South Africa which has also led to the destruction of marine lives, Nairobi river is also flowing with effluent and the local people use its water to grow vegetables and fruits  for human consumption this is posing a risk to human health. The consumption of fruits and vegetable grown using the river’s water are full of metals which causes cancer. The government of Kenya is losing a lot of money towards funding cancer treatment and research money which could have been used to develop other sectors like schools which are of poor standards in Kenya and security which is now a critical issue with the recent terrorist activities from Al-Shabaab and its sympathisers.

Over population is posing a serious threat to the environment. As  population increases there is an increase in demand for agricultural land hence the depletion of forests like the lungs of earth that is Congo and the Amazon, the rivers volume have reduced due to cutting down of trees, hence low water volume for irrigation and resultant insufficient food for people and also wild and domestic animals. Destruction of forests has led to the decline numbers of animal species like the clouded leopard in Asia hence an imbalance eco-system. Depletion of forests have resulted to change in pattern and volume of rain.

Environmental degradation can be minimised by recycling of industrial waste products, plastics and nylons like in Senegal where they make beautiful handbags, baskets and shoes from recycled plastic and nylon.

Environmental protection acts like I Kenya which says that when cuts down a tree she should or he should plant a minimum of three and that before cutting down a tree one should seek permission from the local authority otherwise those caught are jailed and forced to plant more trees. This was advocated by the late professor Wangari Maathai the founder of The Green Belt. She also won a case against the former government of the retired His Excellency Daniel Moi against selling Uhuru Park for the construction of sky scrapers. Today the park serves as a relaxing place because of its green nature as well as tourist attraction. It covers an area of 2000 acres boasting of exotic tree species and an artificial lake. The green Belt Movement aims is to teach civil and environmental education to Kenyans, training workshop for women for change thus empowering women.

Strict rules for protecting marine life should be put in place like forcing industries to recycle their waste instead of releasing to the rivers and oceans. Breeding grounds for marine animals should be respected like in Malindi Kenya they have identified turtle breeding areas and the founder and volunteers are persuading the government to pass laws protecting turtle breeding grounds along the coastal strip of Kenya.

Countries should  fully convince its citizens to participate in large numbers during tree planting day and plant more trees, Kenya during the last year tree planting day, over one hundred thousand trees were planted in major forests in Kenya and forests should be rehabilitated like planting of trees which is going on in Mau forest in Kenya. Evictions should be compulsory to illegal forest encroachers like in Mau,Kakamega and Karura and the encroachers be allocated in other parts so that they have shelter and somewhere to practice agriculture.

Population growth rate should be controlled by creating population control awareness among men and women of child bearing age on the dangers of population explosion on economic resources and the government as well because high population demand more land for agriculture resulting to depletion of forests for agriculture, putting pressure on non-renewable resources like electricity and oil, unemployment where demand exceed supply for jobs resulting to unemployment which gives birth to poverty, high crime rates and drug abuses like narcotic drugs.

People should use alternative sources of energy like solar, geothermal energy like Olkaria geothermal energy in Kenya, wind energy like the on-going construction of the biggest wind mill in Africa in Turkana, Kenya and the use of biogas.

Trees should be planted to exposed mining grounds like Harler park Bamburi in Mombasa, Kenya which now hosts many animals like the dwarf monkeys, endangered Roth child girraffee,toitoises,snakes,bushbacks,water bucks,gazells,buffaloes,fish,crocodiles both the albino and Nile crocodiles,snakes.porcupines and so many.

We should save water by recycling and prohibit cultivation along river banks, and near water tables, encouragement of use of tap water instead of plastic bottled water.

We should walk more and travel by vehicles less, it  is healthy at the same time saving non-renewable energy in form of petrol and diesel.

Aircrafts company should borrow Chinese idea of solar powered aircrafts to minimise use of aircraft fuel by constructing a combine aircraft run by both solar and oil.

Many social entrepreneurs are not succeeding from achieving their goals because of rational allocated growth funding that would allow social entrepreneurs world class institutions. They raise a considerable small amount of money from foundations which are normally small and the funds are normally short term instalments. The funding is fragmented thus many end up spending 80%of their time raising funds rather than focusing on running their organisations.

There is difficulty in recruiting and retaining highly talented people as a result of low funds and some of them are not committed and not persistent.

There is lack of coordination between social entrepreneurs and other social entrepreneurs, the social entrepreneurs and the media, social entrepreneurs and the government, social entrepreneurs and the communities and social entrepreneurs and the business entrepreneurship hence resulting to failure to succeed among social entrepreneurs.

To achieve goals, social  entrepreneurs should merge by partnering with the government, private sector bank  and shaping sustainable development practices through business models such as spin offs structured for growth.

Ideas among social entrepreneurs should be simplified and persistent because nothing comes overnight. It took Grameen Bank 30 years to achieve results Persistency should be accompanied with creativity like Steve Jobs, Richard Branson and Bill Gates.

According to Guy Kawasaki, social entrepreneurs put lots of care on design because design counts, they should avoid crappie designs .It is easy to enchant people with design and not crap.Therefore, social entrepreneurs should master the skill of design and always keep in mind that customers will never provide the entrepreneur with what they need hence calling the spirit of revolution among social entrepreneurs.

Kawasaki acknowledges that some things need to be believed to be seen. Everything must be made real and not imaginary. What is imagined determine what is done .David Bornstein through you tube states that, ’the world we imagine the world will determine what we do’’.

Richard Branson and David Bornstein acknowledge that social entrepreneurs should do what they love and concentrate on the most important people. Mastering communication and thinking different through innovation.

Social entrepreneurs should design real solution for real people, what legal and political obstacles must be addressed. How to encourage employee-customer feedback to stimulate new ideas or improvement like Grameen bank sending its employees to the field to write reports on poor women this helps achieve the good relationships between employees and customers. Employees would have answers to, will people use the product, how often will they use it and at what cost, whose consent is needed to develop the organisation. They is an emphasis on human qualities like flexibility and empathy when this is practiced by social entrepreneurs.

According to Bornstein, attention to the exceptional, challenging norms and expectations. Unexpected successes must be investigated to uncover insights that led to organisations’ innovation like Grameen Bank.

David and Kawasaki acknowledge that one to be a successful social entrepreneur should figure out his or her potentials early and follow what she or he desires, Guy gives an example of him quitting law school after ten days and joined Steve Job.

Emerson acknowledges that social entrepreneurs should be courageous and should let nothing pull them down because entrepreneurs are like toddlers like David acknowledges that they have the courage to experiment with everything with new ideas and their environment, ’A great part of courage….is the courage of having done the thing before..’Emerson. Social entrepreneurs should make the impractical practical according to Christopher Gergen and Gregg Vanourek,’’make the impractical, the improbable, and the impossible plausible, doable’’.

According to Bornstein ,there is a landscape of opportunities in the citizen sector for one to pursue her interests, apply her talents, and act in her own values  while doing work that has a social impact .He believes that the government will come to see social entrepreneurs as the driving force of new policy ideas and practical change models, while businesses will be taking more  proactive stance  towards problem solving and reaching out to underserved markets via the citizen sector. Christopher Gergen and Gregg Vanourek acknowledge that,’…..some people just don’t live; they lead a life. They don’t sit around waiting from a lucky break. They create opportunities. They go after their dreams  and bring them to life……they develop a vision of the good life ,devise  a plan of how to attain it, go for it, and check their progress along the way. As with any great effort, their work is never done but ever-evolving and, often, inspiring to those around them.’’(Chapter one on their book, Life Entrepreneurship’.

We can achieve social entrepreneurship skills by improving the education system so that young people have experience that build qualities of a social entrepreneur and experience these skills, give the sense of agency and sense of their own power to connect to an ethical frame work. Once youth have these experiences they will never go back according to David Bornstein to being passive actors in the society but rather they will be hungry to fix problems and cause wave of creative destruction wherever they go.

Powerful media like CNN, BBC, and Al Jazeera should be used to make the field of social entreneurship more visible. Because at more advanced levels social entrepreneurs need structural and financial support like new laws, less fragmented and more rational capital markets and stronger bridges with the government and business academia. The media can help social entrepreneurs with these by creating awareness and calling on donors to help them financially and government to help them structurally.

Getting students to recognise their familial economic and social similarities is vital to breakdown of youth seeing each other as social critics or competitors.

Organisations that aim at assisting youth needs to coordinate across all stakeholders like schools, the governments, social agencies   and neighbourhoods so as to help underprivileged  students get help need to succeed. When students see others succeeding they feel the pressure to emulate  their predecessors so as to succeed too.

However David Bornstein fails to tell us what should be done when those who borrow loans and fail to pay back. This may lead to the collapse of a financial institution which had to endure a lot of se backs to be where it is now.

He also fails to tell us as a result of many school going children helped by Grameen bank through their mothers there is no chapter that explains that more schools were built and many teachers trained to counter the number of children going to school because they will outnumber teachers resulting to poor standards of education.

David Bornstein tells us that today many people around the world have the opportunity to challenge the status quo without being banned, imprisoned or made to ‘diasppear’which is not true. Take the case of poor Syrian citizen are being butchered for protesting about Asad’s regime, what about the disappearance of fifty thousand Mexicans by drug loads and others are brutally murdered through dismembering of their bodies as a result of Zetas and Sinaloa cartels. Those who questioned and questioned have disappeared. We are still captives of slavery characterized by short lives, illiteracy, daily hardships for survival, feudal lords in the name of drug lords who have crippled youth through narcotic drug addiction like Zelta, Gulf cartel and Sinaloa who are claiming lives of many, out dated religious beliefs and cultures, our sexual orientation and the colour our skin and age old system and prejudiced like the caste system of India which widens income inequality gap. If given maximum support through media, and financial institutions, and the government, exceptional people like social entrepreneurs will help change the society and make the world a better place to live where everyone is given the right to live a happy and comfortable life. Changes begin with me and you and never expect anyone to right a wrong apart from me and you.

Branson, R. (2005).Losing My Virginity: How I Have Survived, Had Fun, And Made a Fortune Doing Business My Way. Longman Publishers

Bornstein, D., Davis, and S. (2010) .What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford University Press: New York.

Gergen, C., Vanourek, G. (2008).Life Entrepreneurs.Jossey-Bass: San Francisco.

Kawasaki, G. (2004).The time-Tested Battle-Hardened Guide for Anyone Starting Anything. Penguin Group:USA.

I have attached photographs and articles to support my essay

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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